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A bibliography of classifier studies in Egyptology  𓏞

(Under preparation)
Please send us to publications on this topic

2024/in press

Nikolaev, Dmitry, Jorke Grotenhuis, Haleli Harel and Orly Goldwasser. 2024. Classifier identification in Ancient Egyptian as a low-resource sequence-labelling task. Accepted to ML4AL 2024 (First Machine Learning for Ancient Languages Workshop) 

Goldwasser, Orly and Zev Handel (eds.). 2024. "Classifiers in Ancient Scripts." Journal of Chinese Writing Systems, Special Issue, Classifiers in Ancient Scripts.

Haleli Harel, Orly Goldwasser & Dmitry Nikolaev. 2024. “iClassifier: A Digital Research Tool for Corpus-based Classifier Networks.” Journal of Chinese Writing Systems, Special Issue, Classifiers in Ancient Scripts. 20 pages.

Xu, Y. 2024. "Semantic classifiers in Guodian bamboo manuscripts: Reconstructing categories in the ancient Chinese mind." Journal of Chinese Writing Systems, Special Issue, Classifiers in Ancient Scripts.

Selz, Gebhard J.  and Bo Zhang. 2024. “Classification in Sumerian Cuneiform.Journal Of Chinese Writing Systems, Special Issue: Classifiers In Ancient Scripts. 20 pages.

Goldwasser O and Susana Soler. 2024. “Semantic Classifiers and Categorization in the Ancient Egyptian Writing System: Rules, List of Classifiers, and Studies by iClassifier on the ‘Story of Sinuhe.” Journal Of Chinese Writing Systems,
Special Issue: Classifiers in Ancient Scripts.


Harel, Haleli. 2024/in press.Comparing Networks of Semantic Categories: Digitizing Graphemic Classifiers in Ancient Complex Scripts Using the iClassifier Research Platform.” In: G. Chantrain (ed.), Language, Semantics and Cognition: Saying and Conceptualizing the World from Ancient Egypt to Modern Times, 109–132. New Haven: Yale Egyptological Studies 14.

Goldwasser, Orly. 2024/in press. “Classifiers as a Priming Device or ‘Classifiers Tell Us What We Already Know’.” In Language, semantics and cognition: Saying and conceptualizing the world from Ancient Egypt to modern times, ed. Gaëlle Chantrain.


Harel, Haleli, Orly Goldwasser and Dmitry Nikolaev. 2023. “Mapping the Ancient Mind: iClassifier, A New Platform for Systematic Analysis of Classifiers in Egyptian and Beyond,” In J. A. Roberson, R. Lucarelli & S. Vinson (eds). Ancient Egypt, New Technology, 130–158. Harvard Egyptological Studies 17. Leiden: Brill .


Goldwasser, Orly. 2023.  "From Determinatives to Classifiers: Categorisation in the Ancient Egyptian Writing System." In: Polis, S. (ed.), Guide to the Writing Systems of Ancient Egypt.  Cairo, Egypt: Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale, 192–199. 

Goldwasser, Orly. 2023. “Was There an ‘Animal’ in Ancient Egypt? Studies in Lexica and Classifier Systems, with a Glimpse Towards Sumer.” In Seen Not Heard: Composition, Iconicity, and the Classifier Systems of Logosyllabic Scripts. March 2–3, 2017 Proceedings.

Harel, Haleli. 2023. A Network of Lexical Borrowings in Egyptian Texts of the New Kingdom: Organizing Knowledge According to the Classifier System. Doctoral dissertation, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.


Goldwasser, Orly. 2022. Des déterminatifs aux classifcateurs: la catégorisation dans l’écriture des anciens Égyptiens.” In Guide des écritures de l’Égypte antique, edited by S. Polis, 164-171. Le Caire: coll. Les Guides de l’Ifao, 1.


Harel, Haleli. 2021-2022. “Zooming In and Out on Hoch Semitic Word List.” Journal of The Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities 48: 57-77.



Simon Thuault. 2021. “Classification of "directive speech acts" in Egyptian teaching texts.” Edited by Patricia Mora Riudavets, Jónatan Ortiz García, Raúl Sánchez Casado, Sergio Alarcón Robledo, Marta Arranz Cárcamo, and Albert Planelles Orozco. Abstract


Gaelle Chantrain. 2021. “Classification Strategies from the End of the Ramesside Period until the Late Period: a Living System.” Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde, 148, 1, Pp. 50–64.


Susana Soler. 2021. “Los orígenes del sincretismo Seth-Baal. Seth y la tormenta según los clasificadores de los Textos de los Sarcófagos del Reino Medio” (‘The Beginning of the Syncretism Seth-Baal. Seth and the Storm according to the Classifiers of the Middle.” In “Sentido de un empeño”. Homenatge a Gregorio del Olmo Lete. , edited by Ll. Feliu, A.

Millet, and J. Vidal, Pp. 461-475. Barcino: Monographica Orientalia.


Gaëlle Chantrain. 2020. “Eléments de la terminologie du temps en égyptien ancien: une étude de sémantique lexicale en diachronie.”. 

Simon Thuault. 2020. “La dissemblance graphémique à l'Ancien Empire: essai de grammatologie cognitive.”. 

Alfonso Vives Cuesta and Silvia Nicolás Alonso. 2020. “Parámetros de clasificación zoológica comparados: la familia Anatidae en egipcio y sumerio.”. 

Andréas Stauder. 2020. “Scripts.” Edited by Elizabeth Bloxam and Ian Shaw. 

Julien Cooper. 2020. Toponymy on the Periphery: Placenames of the Eastern Desert, Red Sea, and South Sinai in Egyptian Documents from the Early Dynastic until the End of the New Kingdom. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.



Jean Winand. 2019. “Did you say synonyms? The case of pḥ and spr in Late Egyptian.” In In Festschrift für Hans- Werner Fischer-Elfert, ed. M. Brose, Fr. Naether, Dietrich Raue, and Tonio Sebastian Richter., Pp. 1235-1274. de Gruyter.

Elisabeth Steinbach-Eicke. 2019. “Taste metaphors in Hieroglyphic Egyptian.” Perception Metaphors, 19, Pp. 145.



Silvia Zago. 2018. “Classifying the Duat.” Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde, 145, 2, Pp. 205–218.


Stéphane Polis. 2018. “The Functions and Toposyntax of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphs. Exploring the Iconicity and Spatiality of Pictorial Graphemes.” Signata. Annales des sémiotiques/Annals of Semiotics, 9, Pp. 291–363.


Francesca Iannarilli. 2018. “Write to dominate reality: graphic alteration of anthropomorphic signs in the Pyramids Texts.” Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections, 17, Pp. 37-46.


Jacobus van Dijk. 2017. “The cloaked man determinative.” In The cultural manifestation of religious experience: studies in honour of Boyo G. Ockinga, edited by Camilla Di Biase-Dyson and Leonie Donovan, Pp. 327-337. Munster: Ugarit.


Mark-Jan Nederhof and Fahrurrozi Rahman. 2017. “A probabilistic model of Ancient Egyptian writing.” Journal of Language Modelling, 5, 1, Pp. 131–163.

T. Pommerening and W. Bisang (eds.). 2017. Classification from Antiquity to Modern Times. Berlin/Boston: de Gruyter.

Gaëlle Chantrain and Camilla Di Biase-Dyson. 2017. “Making a Case for Multidimensionality in Ramesside Figurative Language.” Lingua Aegyptia, 25, Pp. 41-66.

Gebhard J. Selz, Colette Grinevald, and Orly Goldwasser. 2017. “The Question of Sumerian Determinatives: Inventory, Classifier Analysis, and Comparison to Egyptian Classifiers.” Lingua Aegyptia, 25, Pp. 64 pp.

Orly Goldwasser. 2017. “What is a horse?—Lexical acculturation and classification in Egyptian, Sumerian, and Nahuatl.” In T. Pommerening and W. Bisang (eds.), Classification from Antiquity to Modern Times, Pp. 45-66. Berlin/Boston: de Gruyter.


Felix Relats Montserrat. 2016. “la recherche des sens d'un determinatif (ii): les usages d'un signe D19.” NeHeT, 19, Pp. 77-121.

Yongsheng Chen. 2016. “The prototypical determinatives in Egyptian and Chinese writing.” Scripta, 8, Pp. 101-126.


Jean Winand. 2016. “The Syntax-Semantics Interface in Earlier Egyptian: a Case Study in Verbs of Cognition.” In James P. Allen, Mark Collier & Andreas Stauder: Coping with Obscurity: The Brown Workshop on Earlier Egyptian Grammar, Pp. 109-139. Atlanta, GA: Lockwood Press.

Gaelle Chantrain. 2016. “Une journe dans le temps et l'espace: quelques remarques lexicales au sujet de hrw et grH.” In Guilhou. Oxford: Liber amicorum - speculum siderum: N?t Astrophoros. Papers presented to Alicia Maravelia, 151. : Archaeopress.



Haili Wang. 2015. “Chinese approaches to Egyptian hieroglyphs: liushu and bushou.” Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenl?ndischen Gesellschaft, 165, 2, Pp. 279-302.

Rune Nyord. 2015. “Cognitive Linguistics.” UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, 1, Pp. 1.

Eliese-Sophia Lincke. 2015. “The "determinative" is prescribed and yet chosen: a systematic view on Egyptian classifiers.”
In Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists: University of the Aegean, Rhodes, May 22-29, 2008., edited by P. Kousoulis and N. Lazaridis, Pp. 1425-1434. Leuven: Peeters.

Frank Kammerzell. 2015. “Egyptian Verb Classifiers.” In Proceedings of the Xth International Congress of Egyptologists, Rhodes May 22-29, 2008, edited by P. Kousoulis and N. Lazaridis, Pp. 1395-1416. Leuven: Peeters.

Stephane Polis and Serge Rosmorduc. 2015. “The Hieroglyphic Sign Functions: Suggestions for a Revised Taxonomy.” In Fuzzy boundaries: Festschrift for Antonio Loprieno 1, edited by M. Mueller M. Ronsdorf D. Amstutz, A. Dorn and S. Uljas, Pp. 149-174. Hamburg: Widmaier.

Émeline Pulicani. 2015. “Observations sur le déterminatif de l’œil fardé dans les vocables relatifs à l’architecture.” Cahiers de Recherches de l’Institut de Papyrologie et d’Égyptologie de Lille, 30, Pp. 217 - 221.

​Eliese-Sophia Lincke. 2015. “Raumwissen in Hieroglyphen. Die sprachliche Kategorisierung des ägyptischen Ortes Sile (Tjaru) aus prototypentheoretischer Sicht.” Raumwissen und Wissensräume. Beiträge des interdisziplinären Theorie-Workshops für Nachwuchswissenschaftler/innen, eTopoi, Journal for Ancient Studies, Special Volum, 5, Pp. 127–155.


Gaelle Chantrain. 2014. “The Use of Classifiers in the New Kingdom: A Global Reorganization of the Classifiers System?” Lingua Aegyptia, 22, Pp. 39-59.


Jean Winand and Alessandro Stella. 2013. Lexique du Moyen Egyptien. Avec une introduction grammaticale et une liste des mots présentés selon le classificateur sémantique. Liège: PUL.


Yue Hui Ting and Francis Bond. 2012. “Comparing Classifier use in Chinese and Japanese.” In Proceedings of the 26th Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information, and Computation, Pp. 264–271.

Eliese-Sophia Lincke and Frank Kammerzell. 2012. “Egyptian Classifiers at the Interface of Lexical � Semantics and Pragmatics.” In Lexical Semantics in Ancient Egyptian., edited by St. Polis Grossman and W. Jean, Pp. 55-112. Hamburg: Widmaier.

Eliese-Sophia Lincke and Silvia Kutscher. 2012. “Motivated sign formation in Hieroglyphic Egyptian and German Sign Language (DGS). Towards a typology of iconic signs in visual linguistic systems.” In Lexical Semantics in Ancient
Egyptian, edited by Eitan Grossman, St\´ephane Polis, and Jean Winand, Pp. 113 – 140. Hamburg: Widmaier. Abstract

Orly Goldwasser and Colette Grinevald. 2012. “What Are Determinatives Good For?” In Lexical Semantics in Ancient Egyptian., edited by St. Polis E. Grossman and J. Winand, Pp. 17-53. Hamburg: Widmaier.



Wolfgang Schenkel. 2011. “Wie ikonisch ist die altägyptische Schrift?” Lingua Aegyptia, 19, Pp. 125–153.

Eliese-Sophia Lincke. 2011. Die Prinzipien der Klassifizierung im Altaegyptischen. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Arlette David. 2011. “The nmH and the paradox of the voiceless in the Eloquent Peasant.” Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 97, Pp. 73-85.


Christian Cannuyer. 2010. La girafe dans l’Égypte ancienne et le verbe sr: étude de lexicographie et de symbolique animalière. Brussels: Belgisch Genootschap voor Oosterse Studiën / Société Belge d’Études Orientales.

Orly Goldwasser. 2010. “"The Aten is the “energy of light”: new evidence from the script.” Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, 46, Pp. 159-165.

Rachel Aronin. 2010. “‘Sitting among the Great Gods’: Denoting Divinity in the Papyrus of Nu.” Millions of Jubilees: Studies in Honor of David P. Silverman, 2, Pp. 49.

Niv Allon. 2010. “At the Outskirts of a System: Classifiers and Word Dividers in Foreign Phrases and Texts.” Lingua Aegyptia, 18, Pp. 1-17.



Abdou el Kerety. 2009. “Notes on the determinative nḏ.” Göttinger Miszellen, 222, Pp. 13 - 18.



Racheli Shalomi-Hen. 2008. “The bearded woman and the queen: The formation and transformation of female divine classifiers.” In Sex and gender in ancient Egypt. don your wig for a joyful hour, edited by Carolyn Graves-Brown, Pp. 179-189. Swansea: Classical Press of Wales.

Anthony J. Spalinger. 2008. “A Garland of Determinatives.” The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 98, Pp. 139-164.

Orly Golwasser. 2008. “A Comparison between Classifier Language and Classifier Script: The Case of Ancient Egyptian.” In A Festschrift for Hans Jakob Polotsky, edited by G. Goldenberg, Pp. 16-39. A Festschrift for Hans Jakob Polotsky. Jerusalem: Magnes Press: Jerusalem.


Arlette David. 2007. “Ancient Egyptian Forensic Metaphors and Categories.” Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde, 134, Pp. 1 - 14.

Angela McDonald. 2007. “A metaphor for troubled times: the Seth deity determinative in the First Intermediate Period.” Zeitschrift für Ägyptologische Sprache, 134, Pp. 26 - 39.

Niv Allon. 2007. “Seth is Baal: Evidence from the Script.” Agypten und Levante, 17, Pp. 15-22.


Orly Goldwasser. 2006. “On the New Definition of Classifier Languages and Scripts.” Lingua Aegyptia, 14, Pp. 473–484.

Racheli Shalomi-Hen. 2006. The Writing of Gods: the Evolution of Divine Classifiers in the Old Kingdom.. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Orly Goldwasser. 2006. “A Comparison between Classifier Language and Classifier Script: The Case of Ancient Egyptian.” In A Festschrift for Hans Jakob Polotsky, edited by G. Goldenberg, Pp. 16-39. Jerusalem: Magnes Press.



Orly Goldwasser. 2005. “Where is Metaphor? Conceptual Metaphor and Alternative Classification in the Hieroglyphic Script.” Metaphor & Symbol, 20, 2, Pp. 95-113.



Angela McDonald. 2004. “Review of Goldwasser (2002).” Lingua Aegyptia, 12, Pp. 235-244.



Orly Goldwasser. 2003. “The Building Blocks of a Conceptual Category: The Ancient Egyptian Evidence.” In Philosophers and Hieroglyphs, edited by L. Morra & C. Bazzanella, Pp. 219–236. Torino: Rosenberg & Sellier.

M. Beatrice Galgano. 2003. “Derrida's De la Grammatologie and Hieroglyphic Writing.” In Philosophers and Hieroglyphs,
edited by L. Morra and C. Bazzanella, Pp. 140-158. Torino: Rosenberg & Sellier.

Antonio Loprieno. 2003. “Is the Egyptian Hieroglyphic Determinative Chosen or Prescribed?” In Philosophers and Hieroglyphs, edited by L. Morra and C. Bazzanella, Pp. 237-250. Torino: Rosenberg & Sellier.

Pascal Vernus. 2003. “Ideogramme et phonogramme ? l'?preuve de la figurativit?: les intermittences de l'homophonie.” In Philosophers and Hieroglyphs, edited by Lucia Morra and Carla Bazzanella, Pp. 205-212. Torino: Rosenberg & Sellier.


Orly Golwasser. 2002. Prophets, Lovers and Giraffes. Wor(l)d Classification in Ancient Egypt.. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.



Racheli Shalomi-Hen. 2001. Classifying the Divine: Determinatives and Categorisation in CT 335 and BD 17. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Orly  Goldwasser. 2001. “‘Hieroglyphs’.” In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. oxford and N.Y: Oxford University Press.



Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald. 2000. Classifiers: A Typology of Noun Categorization Devices. . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Arlette David. 2000. “De l'inf?riorit? ? la perturbation: l'oiseau du " mal " et la cat?gorisation en ?gypte � ancienne.” G?ttinger Orientforschungen IV/, 38.



Richard Parkinson. 1999. Cracking Codes: The Rosetta Stone and Decipherment. University of California Press.

Orly Goldwasser. 1999. “The Determinative System as a Mirror of World Organization.” Göttinger  Miszellen, 170, Pp. 73-93.

Wawrzyniec Smoczynski. 1999. “Seeking Structure in the Lexicon: On Some Cognitive-Functional Aspects of Determinative Assignment.” Lingua Aegyptia, 6, Pp. 153-162.



Wolfgang Schenkel. 1998. “Graphien der 1. Person Plural mit Personendeterminativ in den Sargtexten.” Göttinger Miszellen, 165, Pp. 91 - 98.



Paul J. Frandsen. 1997. “On Categorization and Metaphorical Structuring: Some Remarks on Egyptian Art and Language.” Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 7, Pp. 71-104.



Orly Golwasser. 1995. From Icon to Metaphor: Studies in the semiotics of the hieroglyphs. Fribourg & Gottingen: University Press Fribourg; Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.



Jochem Kahl. 1994. Das System der ägyptischen Hieroglyphenschrift in der 0.-3. Dynastie. Göttinger Orientforschungen 4. Reihe: Ägypten 29. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.



Frank Kammerzell. 1993. “Aristoteles, und ?gyptische Phonologie: zu systematischen Verschiedenheiten von geschriebener und gesprochener Sprache.” In Sesto Congresso internazionale di egittologia: atti 2, edited by Anonymous, Pp. 243-251. Torino: International Association of Egyptologists.



Erik Hornung. 1992. Idea into Image. Princeton: Timkem Publishers.

R. H. Wilkinson. 1992. Reading Egyptian Art: A Hieroglyphic Guide to Ancient Egyptian Painting and Sculpture.. London: Thames and Hudson.



Orly Goldwasser and Nathaniel Laor. 1991. “The Allure of the Holy Glyphs: A Psycholinguistic Perspective on the Egyptian Script.” Göttinger Miszellen, 123, Pp. 37 - 51.



Noel Rude. 1986. “Graphemic Classifiers in Egyptian Hieroglyphics and Mesopotamian Cuneiform.” In Noun Classes and Categorization: Proceedings of a Symposium on Categorization and Noun Classification., edited by C. Craig (Grinevald), Pp. 133-138. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Pascal Vernus. 1986. “L'ecriture hieroglyphique: une ecriture duplicee.” Cahiers Confrontation, 16, Pp. 59-66.


Wolfgang Schenkel. 1984. “Schrift.” In Lexikon der Agyptologie V, edited by W. Helck and W. Westendorf, Pp. 713-735. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.



Wolfgang Schenkel. 1983. Aus der Arbeit an einer Konkordanz zu den altägyptischen Sargtexten: Teil 1: Zur Transkription des Hieroglyphisch-Ägyptischen. Teil 2: Zur Pluralbildung des Ägyptischen. Göttinger Orientforschungen, 4. Reihe: Ägypten 12. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. Teil 1 unter Mitarbeit von Rainer Hannig. (Appendix 3 includes a classifiers list).



Raphael Giveon. 1978. “Determinatives in the hieroglyphic writing of Canaanite names.” In R. Giveon, The impact of Egypt on Canaan: Iconographical and related studies, Pp. 15 -21. ; Göttingen: Universitätsverlag; Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht: Freiburg (Schweiz).



Dieter Kurth. 1973. “Götter determinieren Götter.” Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur, 5, Pp. 175 - 181.

Henry G. Fischer. 1973. “Redundant Determinatives in The Old Kingdom.” Metropolitan Museum Journal, 8, Pp. 7 - 25.



Peter Kaplony. 1972. Die Prinzipien der Hieroglyphenschrift. Verlag nicht ermittelbar.


Georges Posener. 1969. “Sur l’emploi euphémique de xftj(w) “ennemi(s).” Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde, 96, 1, Pp. 30-35.



Sebastianus Bartina. 1965. “Determinativi aegyptiaci Gardiner A 14 origo praedynastica.” Boletín de la Asociación Española de Orientalistas, 1, Pp. 149-15.


Alan H. Gardiner. 1957. Egyptian grammar; being an introduction to the study of hieroglyphs. Oxford: Oxford University Press.



Alan. Gardiner. 1951. “A grim metaphor.” Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 37, Pp. 29-31.


Étienne Drioton and others. 1949. “Dissimilations graphiques dans les textes des pyramides”.


Theodor Dombart. 1925. “Die Bedeutung des Determinativs Aa17.” JSOR, 9, Pp. 233 - 240.


H. Wiesmann. 1922. “Die Determinative des sprechenden Mannes und der Buchrolle in den Pyramidentexten.” Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde, 57, Pp. 73 - 77.


Jean-Francois Champollion. 1836. Grammaire Égyptienne, Ou Principes Généraux De L'écriture Sacrée Égyptienne Appliquée À La Représentation De La Langue Parlée. Paris : Typographie de Firman Didot Frères.

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